The population of the district is 9.54 lakhs as per 2011 Census with 11.96% of growth rate and this constituted 1.92% of the population of the state while the Geographical area of the District is 12253 Sq. KM. which is only 7.52% of the area of the State. Out of the total population 4.66 lakhs are Male and 4.88 lakhs are Female. The Sex Ratio is 1046 Females per 1000 Males. As per 2011 census Scheduled Castes constituted 2.49% of the population while Scheduled Tribes account for 82.67% of the population of the district. The district has a work force of 3.93 lakhs constituting about 41.12% of the population besides the marginal workers to a tune of 1.63 lakhs Nos. as per 2011 Census. The cultivators constitute 21.58%, Agricultural Labourers 28.96% and the balance engage in Primary, Secondary and Territory sectors.
There are 4.04 lakhs Nos. literates forming 42.34% of the total population of the District. Male literates constitute 57.92% while female literates forming 41.83%.
The District receives annual normal rainfall of 1290.6mm. of which south-west monsoon accounts for 894.95mm of the normal while North-East monsoon contributes 208.2mm of the normal rainfall during 2019- 20 Therest is shared by summer showers and winter rains. Total rainfall received is 1516.3 mm during the year 2019-20 which is 17.5% above the Normal Rain fall.
The total geographical area of the district is 12.25 lakh hectares, of this 0.12 lakhs alone is cultivable waste while 7.76 lakh hectares is forest area. The rest is distributed among “Barren and uncultivable land” about 1.08 lakh hectares and “Land put to non agricultural uses” about 0.46 lakh hectares. Out of the cultivable area, the net area sown form 1.44 lakh hectares while fallow (current and old) lands constitute about 1.14 lakh hectares during 2019-20.
FLORA AND FAUNA
More than the one third of the area in the District is covered by forest. The forests are of moist and dry deciduous type. The common species available in them are Guggilam, Tangedu, Sirimanu, Kamba, Yagisa, Nallamaddi, Gandra, Vepa etc. Bamboo shrubs are sparsely scattered. But forest area in the district has been showing a quiescent pecline since 1955-56 perhaps due to podu practice, indiscriminate grazing and browsing. To stem this, regeneration programmes are being carried out. Chinthapalli Teak Plantation is an off shoot of this.
The latest caper in this regeneration programme is raising of Teak, Silver oak trees, coffee plantations, as the agency areas are found suitable agronomically for coffee growth. Coffee plantations have been raised in about 5433 Acres in Chinthapalli, Minimuluru and Ananthagiri regions by different agencies for different purposes. By the forest Department to conserve soil, by the Coffee board to evolve cultures suited to on-traditional areas and by the Girijan Corporation and the I.T.D.A. to wean out tribal from the pernicious practices of “Podu Cultivation.”
Regarding fauna the district has a livestock of 20 . 95 lakhs as per 2012 livestock Census. In the Livestock,Cattle 5.11 lakh Nos. Buffaloes0.65 lakh Nos. Sheep 1.26 lakh Nos. and Goats 3.18 lakh Nos. about wild fauna Boars and Bison’s are found in Forest areas of the district and isolated instances of Cheetahs and tigers.